Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 286-290
Correlation Between Soy Milk Formula Consumption with Plasma Estradiol Level and Growth of Children in Denpasar
I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani, Department of Child Health, Udayana University Medical School/Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia
Alice Indradjaja, Bengkayang Hospital, Bengkayang, Indonesia
I Gusti Agung Ngurah Sugitha Adnyana, Department of Child Health, Udayana University Medical School/Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia
Soetjiningsih, Department of Child Health, Udayana University Medical School/Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia
Received: Nov. 6, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 16, 2019;       Published: Dec. 24, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajp.20190504.31      View  74      Downloads  38
Abstract
Soy milk formula is a formula which contains soybean as a substitute for cow's milk protein. Consumption of soy formula has caused widespread concern especially related to the effect of isoflavones. We aimed to determine the correlation of plasma estradiol level and to compare physical growth in children who consumed soy milk formula with children who consumed cow's milk formula. This was a case-control study of children aged six months to two years old who were treated at pediatric outpatient clinic in Sanglah Hospital and private pediatric outpatient clinic in Denpasar from April to July 2015. Subjects were divided into children who consumed soy milk formula and children who consumed cow’s milk formula. Data regarding physical examination, anthropometric measurements, diet types and estradiol level were obtained. Total 28 subjects enrolled. We found significant difference in estradiol level between the two groups (OR: 0.33; p = 0.001; 95% CI = 0.17 - 0.64). We found no significant difference in sexual development between those two groups (OR: 1.25; p = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.92 - 1.71). Furthermore we found no significantly different in physical growth of subjects who consumed soy milk formula compared to cow's milk formula (p>0.05). Soy milk formula consumption did not associated with significant difference of sexual development and growth in children consuming soy milk compared to cow’s milk. However, it related to increament of estradiol level.
Keywords
Soy Milk Formula, Estradiol Levels, Growth
To cite this article
I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani, Alice Indradjaja, I Gusti Agung Ngurah Sugitha Adnyana, Soetjiningsih, Correlation Between Soy Milk Formula Consumption with Plasma Estradiol Level and Growth of Children in Denpasar, American Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2019, pp. 286-290. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20190504.31
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Ruhrah J. The soy bean in infant feeding: preliminary report. Arch Pediatr 1909; 26: 496-501.
[2]
American Academy of Pediatrics Committe on Nutrition. Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 148-53.
[3]
Munro IC, Harwood M, Hlywka JJ, Stephen AM, Doull J, Flamm WG, et al. Soy isoflavones: a safety review. Nutr Rev 2003; 61: 1-33.
[4]
Setchell KD. Soy isoflavones-benefit and risks from nature’s selection estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 354-62.
[5]
Katherine MF, Sherry AF, K. Barry D, Retha RN. Effects of genistein exposure on sexually dimorphic behaviors in rats. Toxicol Sci 2000; 55: 311-9.
[6]
Richard WL, Nigel B, Gillian MM, Anthony S, Susan S, Michael H, et al. The effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on the postnatal development of rat. Toxicol Sci 2003; 71: 74-83.
[7]
Karen ALT, Marion W, Keith M, Irene G, J Ian M, Richard MS. Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicullar cell numbers in marmoset monkey in adulthood. Hum Reprod 2006; 4: 896-904.
[8]
Zeiger RS, Sampson HA, Bock SA, Burcks AW Jr, Harden K, Noone S, et al. Soy allergy in infants and children with IgE-associated cow’s milk allergy. J Pediatr 1999; 134: 614–22.
[9]
Nai HME, Adhi KT, Sutiari NK. Kecukupan asupan gizi remaja vegetarian dan nonvegetarian di yayasan Sri Sathya Sai Bali tahun 2011. IJPH 2012; 1: 43-9.
[10]
NTP. NTP multigenerational reproductive study of genistein (cas no. 446-72-0) in sprague-dawley rats (feed study). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 2008; 539: 1-266.
[11]
Gilchrist JM, Moore MB, Andres A, Estroff JA, Badger TM. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula. J Pediatr 2009; 156 (2): 215-20.
[12]
Speroff L, Glass RH, Case NG. Abnormal puberty and growth problems. In: Seiffer DB, Speroff L, editors. Clinical endocrinology gynecology and infertility. 6th edition. Philadephia: Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 381-419.
[13]
Bernbaum JC, Umbach DM, Ragan NB, Ballard JL, Archer JI, Schmidt-Davis H, dkk. Pilot studies of estrogen-related physical findings in infants. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 416-20.
[14]
Chan GM, Leeper L, Book LS. Effects of soy formulas on mineral metabolism in term infants. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141: 527-30.
[15]
Hillman LS. Bone mineral content in term infants fed human milk, cow milk-based formula, or soy-based formula. J Pediatr 1988; 113: 208-12.
[16]
Hillman LS, Chow W, Salmons SS, Weaver E, Erickson M, Hansen J. Vitamin D metabolism, mineral homeostasis, and bone mineralization in term infants fed human milk, cow milk-based formula, or soy-based formula. J Pediatr 1988; 112: 864-74.
[17]
Jung AL, Carr SL. A soy protein formula and a milk-based formula-a comparative evaluation in milk-tolerant infants showed no significant nutritional differences. Clin Pediatr 1977; 16: 982-5.
[18]
Köhler L, Meeuwisse G, Mortensson W. Food intake and growth of infants between six and twenty-six weeks of age on breast milk, cow's milk formula, or soy formula. Acta Paediatr Scand 1984; 73: 40-8.
[19]
Mimouni F, Campaigne B, Neylan M, Tsang RC. Bone mineralization in the first year of life in infants fed human milk, cow-milk formula, or soy-based formula. J Pediatr 1993; 122: 348-54.
[20]
Sellars WA, Halpern SR, Johnson RB, Anderson DW, Jr, Saperstein S, Shannon BS, Jr. New growth charts: soy, cow, and breast milk comparison. Ann Allergy 1971; 29: 126-34.
[21]
Steichen JJ, Tsang RC. Bone mineralization and growth in term infants fed soy-based or cow milk-based formula. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 687-92.
[22]
Lasekan JB, Ostrom KM, Jacobs JR, Blatter MM, Ndife LI, Gooch WM 3rd, et al. Growth of newborn, term infants fed soy formulas for 1 year. Clin Pediatr 1999; 38: 563-71.
Browse journals by subject